Birthstone Guide: Tourmaline for Those Born in October

Gem-A gemmology and diamond tutor, Julia Griffith FGA DGA EG, looks at tourmaline, the enchanting rainbow-coloured birthstone for October.

Tourmaline is the rainbow jewel of the gem world. No other gem is available in such an impressive array of colours. Paired with good durability and high lustre, this gemstone has become a favourite of many.

Read more: Birthstone Guide: Sapphire for September

The hues, tones and saturations of tourmaline seem limitless, ranging from soft shades to vibrant explosions of colour. The desirability of the colour has a huge impact on price. The more vivid, rarer colours reach higher values, such as the coveted electric-blue copper bearing Paraiba tourmaline. Many tourmalines have commercial names such as rubellite for pink to red tourmaline. It is also common to describe them simply with the pre-fix of their colour i.e., 'pink tourmaline'.

Tourmaline is also known for its colour-zoned or "parti-coloured" specimens, where different zones of colour can be seen in the cross-section or down the length of the crystal. These can be cut to display the different colour patterns either as slices, creative carvings, facetted or cabochon gemstones, or left as whole crystal specimens. The most popular colour-duo is watermelon tourmaline which display pink on the inside and a rim of green on the outside.


Bicoloured tourmaline on quartz. Image: ©Gem-A

Read more: Turkish Designer Özlem Tuna Named Gem-A’s Gem Empathy Award Winner at IJL 2017

Tourmaline is a complex boro-silicate of aluminium, magnesium and iron and the vast selection of colours are due to trace impurities and colour centres. The availability of these impurities may vary during growth, which allows for the development of different layers of colour. Its chemical makeup is so complicated that it cannot be synthesized, and is therefore always of natural origin.

The crystals are easy to identify with the tell-tale rounded 3-sided, or 6-sided, cross sections. They are often long and prismatic with heavy striations down the length of the crystal and are topped with either a pyramid or a flat pinacoid.


Watermelon tourmaline. Image by Pat Daly. ©Gem-A

First discoveries have been attributed to both Brazil and Italy in the 1500's. The name of tourmaline was derived from the Sinhalese phrase tura mali, which was used by the miners and traders to refer to "unknown stones of mixed colours". The advancement of mineralogy allowed the recognition of tourmaline as its own gem species in the 1800's.

Tourmaline has a hardness of 7 - 7.5 and good toughness, making it suitable for use in jewellery. Inclusions are fairly common in tourmaline and many contain mirror-like fractures within them, which can be quite attractive, but may compromise the durability if knocked. Inclusion free stones are available and will fetch a premium price. Parallel needle-like cavities are also common in tourmaline, which in vast numbers can create chatoyancy, or the "catseye", effect.

Read more: Field Trip: Screening for Tourmaline at the Oceanview Mine, California

Since their discovery, tourmalines have been used as talismans for protection against toxins and radiation as well as many other healing properties which are associated with particular colours of tourmaline. They are said to emit far-infrared rays that penetrate the body and stimulate and soothe the tissue within. This association is likely linked to the ability of tourmalines to become charged when heated, which is known as pyroelectricity.This property causes tourmalines to readily attract dust, and so a regular flick with a duster is recommended if they are displayed under hot lighting - arguably, a small inconvenience for such a stunner of a gem.


Bicoloured tourmaline. Image: ©Gem-A

This article was written by Julia Griffith, FGA DGA EG at Gem-A for the Oct/Nov 2017 issue of The Jeweller - The magazine of the National Association of Jewellers

Interested in finding out more about gemmology? Sign-up to one of Gem-A's courses or workshops.

If you would like to subscribe to Gems&Jewellery and The Journal of Gemmology please visit Membership.

Cover image Tourmaline group. Image courtesy of Julia Griffith.


Birthstone Guide: Turquoise For Those Born In December

Birthstone Guide: Turquoise For Those Born In December

Beautiful blue turquoise is one of three birthstones for the month of December (in addition to zircon and tanzanite). It is enriched with real cultural significance that can be traced back thousands of years. Here, we explore the blue shades of turquoise and explain what makes this gemstone so special...

Read more


Understanding the Cat's Eye Effect in Gemstones

Understanding the Cat's Eye Effect in Gemstones

Chatoyancy is the gemmological name given to the curious optical effect in which a band of light is reflected in cabochon-cut gemstones, creating an appearance similar to light bouncing off a cat's eye. Gem-A's Collection Curator, Barbara Kolator FGA DGA explains chatoyancy and highlights some of the many gems in which it can occur.

Read more


Jade and its Importance in China

Jade and its Importance in China

Jade has long been revered by gem lovers internationally, but nowhere more so than in China. But what is it that makes this gemstone so special? Gem-A's Assistant Gemmology Tutor Dr Juliette Hibou FGA gives us an overview of jade, how to identify it and its significance in Chinese culture.

Read more


Highlights of Gem-A Conference 2019

Highlights of Gem-A Conference 2019

The Gem-A Conference is always the highlight of our gemmological calendar! If you didn’t manage to make it, we’ve put together a few of the highlights from this year’s event to fill you in on what you missed, and whet your appetite for Gem-A Conference 2020!

Read more


The Colours of Topaz: November Birthstone

The Colours of Topaz: November Birthstone

Topaz is most often associated with the colours yellow, orange, blue and pink, but it can also be colourless, green and brown. Find out more about the second birthstone of November, here. 

Read more


Birthstone Guide: Citrine for Those Born in November

Birthstone Guide: Citrine for Those Born in November

As we enter the dark winter months, November’s birthstone citrine offers rays of warm yellow-orange sunshine. Here, gemmology tutor Lily Faber FGA DGA EG explores the properties and folklore around this sunny gemstone.

Read more